Acronym List


Acronym Full name Comments
M mega prefix for 10 to the 6th power
M Mach
m milli prefix for 10 to the negative 3rd power
M&O maintenance and operations
M&S Materials and Services
M&V Magnetism & Volcanoes
M-PDU multiplexed protocol data unit
M3 M cubed Mesoscale and Microscale Meteorology division, NCAR
MAB Man and the Biosphere program United Nations
MAB Meteorological Applications Branch NOAA, FSL Forecast Research Division
MAC Machine Aided Cognition
MAC Multiple Access Computer
MAC Manager's Advisory Council NCAR, ATD
MAC medium access control
MACCM2 Middle Atmosphere Community Climate Model, Version 2
MACCM3 Middle Atmosphere Community Climate Model, Version of CCM3
machine code   The machine language used for entering text and program instructions onto the recording medium or into storage and which is subsequently used for processing and printout (i.e., computer instruction code)
MACRAT Middle-Atmosphere Chemistry, Radiation, and Transport program NCAR, ACD
MADAM Master Data Acquisition Module
MADER Management of Atmospheric Data for Evaluation and Research
MADIS Meteorological Assimilation Data Ingest System
MAF Mesoscale Analysis Forecasting
MAG Magnetosphere Currents/Fields
MAGE Marine Aerosol and Gas Exchange Experiment or Project
MAGE Marine Gas Emissions
MAGSAT Magnetic Field Satellite
mail reflectors   Mail boxes that automatically forward their contents to a specified list of recipients. Recipients may be on any of several networks, including commercial networks
MALTS Marine Layer Thickness Study
MAMOS Marine Automatic Meteorological Observing Station USWB
MAMS Multispectral Atmospheric Mapping Sensor
MAN metropolitan area network
MAP Mesoscale Alpine Project
MAP Metro-Agro-Plex
MAP Middle Atmosphere Program
MAPCON   A routine developed by Unidata for contouring NPS gridded data on a background map from netCDF files
MAPR Multi-angle Profiling Radar
MAPS Measurement of Air Pollution from Satellites NASA
MAPS Multiple Aircraft Positioning System
MAPS Mesoscale Analysis and Prediction System
MAPS millions of actions per second
MAPS/RUC MAPS is the research version of the Rapid Update Cycle NOAA/FSL
MAR Modernization and Associated Restructing see MARD
MAR Marshall Field Site NCAR, EOL and RAL
MARC Middle Atmosphere Responses to Changes
MARC Machine Readable Cataloging
MARD Modernization Associated Restructuring Demonstration An NWS program to test AWIPS components
MARI Middle Atmosphere Research Initiative successor to MASI
Mark-IVB   a satellite data system developed by the U.S. Air Force
MARS Meteorological Airborne Radar Data System NOAA
MAS Millimeter-wave Atmospheric Sounder
MASDIS Meteorological Assimilation Data Ingest System
MASER Microwave Amplification by Stimulated Emission of Radiation
MASI Middle Atmosphere Science Initiative NSF
MASnet mainframe and server network formerly the NCAR local network
MASP Multi-angle Aerosol Spectrometer Probe
MASSCOMP Massachusetts Computer Corporation
MATCH Model for Atmospheric Chemistry and Transport
MATCH McGill University; technical improvements to the large-scale spectral element ocean model (SEOM)
MATEX Massive Air Tracer Experiment New England acid rain
MATR MOPITT Algorithm Test Radiometer
MAYPOLE May Polarization Experiment
mb millibar
Mb Megabits
MB megabytes Roughly one million bytes; exactly 1,048,576 bytes. See also mb
mb Millibar See also MB
MBA MB Associates San Ramon, California
M-BNW Batelle Northwest
MBO Management by Objective
MBONE Multicast backBONE
Mbps megabits Millions of bits per second
MBT Miscellaneous Budget Transactions
MBY megabyte
Mbyte megabyte (106) per second
MCA moist convective adjustment
MCA moist convective adjustment
MCA Micro Channel Architecture
MCA Manufacturing Chemists Association
McBE McIDAS Broadcast Evaluation A committee drawn from the sites that first tested the Unidata McIDAS software
MCC mesoscale convective complex
MCC Mission Control Center
MCCs mesoscale convective complexes
McIDAS Man-computer Interactive Data Access System A suite of applications, developed at University of WI, Madison's SSEC, for analyzing and displaying meteorological data for research and education. The software can be used with conventional observation, satellite, and grid-point data. Unidata distributes two versions of this software: McIDAS-X for UNIX platforms and McIDAS-OS2 for computers running OS/2
MCR Multichannel Cloud Radiometer
MCS mesoscale convective system
MCTEX Maritime Continent Thunderstorm Experiment
MCV mesoscale cyclonic vortex
MD Master Directory
MD Modernization Division NOAA, FSL
MD file   Generalized meteorological data file in a McIDAS database
MDC Modified Direct Costs
MDCRS Meteorological Data Collection and Reporting System
MDI Michelson Doppler Imager
MDM multiplexer/demultiplexer
MDR Manually Digitized Radar A type of radar image
MDS Minimum detectable signal
MDDS Maintenance Decision Support System  
MECCA Model Evaluation Consortium for Climate Assessment EPRI, ENEA, EDF/DER, KEMA, SCE, CRIEPI, NSCEE, and EPA were financial sponsors of MECCA which contracted with UCAR/NCAR to host a dedicated supercomputer in the early 90's.
MECCA Mesoscale Experiment Center for Control and Analysis
MEF Master E-mail Facility
MEFENET Department of Energy Network
MEGAN Model of the Exchange of Gases between the Atmosphere and Nature  
MELTER Mesosphere/ Lower Thermosphere Explorer NASA
MEP Minority Engineering Program
MERIS Medium Resolution Imaging Spectrometer ESA
MERIT MERIT, Inc. A nonprofit consortium of eight Michigan universities that provides funding and sets policy for the Merit Computer Network. Merit, with the University of Michigan, managed NSFNET from inception until 1994
MERT Medical Emergency Response Team UCAR
Meso-alpha   200-2000 km range Fronts, Hydrostatic low-pressure (Eta, AVN) systems
Meso-beta   20-200 km range land-water, sea Non-hydrostatic, breezes hydrostatic (MM5, RAMS)
Meso-gamma   2-20 km range Thunderstorm Non-hydrostatic convection, (ARPS) complex terrain flows
MesoNet Mesoscale Network
mesoscale   10 to 100 km (GARP usage)
Mesoscale models   Mesoscale models are used to simulate sub-grid scale phenomena not resolved by regional-scale models. The mesoscale ranges as defined by Orlanski (1975).
Metadata   Data about (behind) the data (the attributes associated with the data)
METAPPS Meteorological Applications Task Force
METAR meteorological aviation reports
MeteoAssert a multimedia presentation of weather phenomena
METEOR Multiple Experiment Transporter into Earth Orbit and Return USSR
METEOSAT Meteorological Satellite A European satellite, ESA
METOBS   An MSDOS-based program for extracting marine observations from raw observation files
METROMEX Metropolitan Meteorological Experiment 1970
MF medium frequency 300-3,000 KHz
MFD Master File Directory
MFE Magnetic Field Explorer
MFE Magnetic Field Experiment
MFE/magnolia Magnetic Field Explorer/Magnolia mission USA/France
MFECC Magnetic Fusion Energy Computation Center
MFEM Magnetic Field Explorer Mission USA
MFENET National Magnetic Fusion Energy Network
M-ISWS Illinois State Water Survey
MFLOPS Megaflops millions of floating-point operations (106) per second
MFM standard hard drives
mfp mean free path
MGA Meteorological and Geoastrophysical Abstracts
MHD magnetohydrodynamic
MHR Mile High Radar
MHS message handling system
MHz Megahertz unit of frequency: one million cycles per second
MIB management information base
MICR magnetic ink character reader regarding computer pattern recognition
MicroVax   A minicomputer manufactured by DEC
MIDI Musical Instrument Digital Interface
MIDnet   A regional computer network of midwestern universities; linked to NSFNET; established in 1985
MIESR Matrix Isolation/Electron Spin Resonance
MIGS MASnet Internet gateway server (or system)
MIP millions of Instructions per second
MILNET Military Network
MILOX Mid-Latitutde Ecosystem and Photochemical Oxidants  
MIMD multiple instruction multiple data
MIMR Multiband Imaging Microwave Radiometer
MIMSA Minority Institutions in Marine Sciences Association
MIP Millions of Instructions per second
MIPS Millions of Instructions per second
MIRA Management Information Research Associates NCAR consultant
MIRAGE Megacity Impacts on Regional and Global Environments
MIRAGE-Mexico Megacity Impact on Regional and Global Environments-Mexico campaign
MISR Multiangle Imaging Spectroradiometer EOS AM
MIST Microburst and Severe Thunderstorm Experiment or Project
MIT Massachusetts Institute of Technology
MITI Ministry of International Trade and Industry Japan
MIZEX Marginal Ice Zone Experiment
MJO Madden-Julian Oscillation
MKS meter-kilogram-second system of measurement
MKS unit of force replaced by Newtons
MKSA Absolute MKS used for electomagnetic units in acoustics
ML Mesa Laboratory UCAR, NCAR
MLI Multiple Layer Insulation
MLM Time-varying horizontal model of the Lavoice type See VSM, TDM, and DCM
MLNAC Mesa Lab Network Access Completion NCAR
MLO Mauna Loa Observatory NOAA
MLOPEX Mauna Loa Photochemistry Experiment I, summer of 1988; II, summer of 1991
MLS Microwave Limb Sounder NASA/UARS
MLSO Mauna Loa Solar Observatory
MLT magnetic local time
mM milli mole
MMD mass median diameter
MM4 mesoscale model, version 4 Pennsylvania State University/NCAR mesoscale (regional) limited-area model
MM5 Fifth-generation Mesoscale Model
MM90   the parallelized version of MM5
MMAC Multi-Media Access Center Cabletron repeater
MMD mass median diameter
MMI Monthly Management Information Report
MMI man-made interface
MMM Mesoscale and Microscale Meteorology M cubed (M3) is a division of NCAR
MMOL Manned Orbital Laboratory
MMS Minerals Management Service DOI
MMS Microscale Meteorology Section NCAR, MMM
MMSS multimission support service
MNP Microcom Network Protocol Class V compresses data for 2x thruput
MNRAS Monthly Notes of the Royal Astronomical Society
MO&DSD Mission Operations and Data Systems Directorate
MOA Memorandum of Agreement
MOA Memorandum of Agreement
MOBILHY Modelisation du Bilan Hydrique
MOCCA Mobile Operations Center for Communication and Analysis
MOCD magneto-optics compact disk
MOD (+/or DSI Ministry of Defense DSI-Defense Security Installation, London
MODAC Meteorological Observation and Data Assimilation Center
MODCOMP   A machine manufactured by Modular Computer Systems Inc.
MODD Meteorological and Omega Data Digitizer GARP
MODE Mid-Oceanic Dynamics Experiment Spring 1973, Sargasso Sea
MODE MODE in cospar papers
modem modulater-demodulater Computer terminal for alphanumeric information
MODIS Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer
MODIS-T Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer-Tilt
MODS Mission Operations and Data Systems
MOE Measure of Effectiveness
mol mole
MOL Manned Orbital Laboratory
MOLAS Mono Lake APIPS Study
MOM MASnet Operations Monitor
MOM mission operations manager
MONEX Monsoon Experiment GARP
MONTBLEX Monsoon Trough Boundary Layer Experiment India
MOPITT Measurements of Pollution in the Troposphere NCAR, ACD
MOPS millions of operations (106) per second
MOS Model Output Statistics
MOS Marine Observation Satellite Japan
MOS metal-oxide semiconductor
Mosaic   A software tool designed by NCSA to browse various information servers on the Internet. Mosaic allows a user to view WWW and Gopher documents and to retrieve files from FTP servers, among other capabilities
MOSES Manned Open Sea Experiment Station NOAA
MOSES Meteorological Observing Station, extremely simple GAMP, name for their automatic observing system
Motif   A software toolkit for the X Window System distributed by the Open Software Foundation
MOU Memorandum of Understanding
moulded-draught draught mean the vertical distance from the moulded base line amidships to a subdivision load water line
Mountain Waves See Lee Waves
MOVIE.BYU Colored Movie Software produced by Brigham Young University
MOZART Model for Ozone and Related Chemical Tracers NCAR
mp melting point
MP Mono-processing Job class on the Cray computers
MP MASnet code for the Xerox 4050 laser printers
MPA Maintenance Purchase Award
MPC mother-of-pearl clouds
MPD Magnetospheric Particles Detectors
MPDATA Multidimensional Positive Definite Advection Algorithm
MPI Max Planck Institute
MPI message passing interface
MPIF Message Passing Interface Forum
MPOA Multi-Protocol Over ATM
MPP massively parallel processor
MPR advanced microwave precipitation radiometer
MPS radar system never written out
MPS Mesoscale Prediction Section NCAR, MMM
MR Management Reserve
MRB Materials Review Board
MRF Medium-Range Forecast A forecasting model run by the NMC
MRF Meteorological Rocket Facility Wallops Island
MRI Meteorological Research, Inc. Altadera, California
MRI Meteorological Research Institute of the JMA, Japanese Meteorological Association
MRI Minority Research Initiation
MRI Mesoscale Research Initiative
MRIR Medium Resolution Infrared Radiometer Nimbus
MRIS Media Relations & Information Services NCAR
MRN Meteorological Rocket Network IRIG, USAF
MRS Mesoscale Research Section AAP, now a part of MMM, NCAR
MS MASnet code for the Mass Storage System
MS the company Microsoft
MSC Manned Spaceflight Center Now Lyndon B Johnson Space Center in Houston
MSCP mass store control processor NCAR
MSD mass storage device
MSDOS Microsoft Disk Operating System The operating system developed by Microsoft Corporation for running personal computers
MSE mean square error
MSF Magnetic Flux Structures
MSFC Marshall Space Flight Center NASA
MSFE Mechanisms of Soil Formation and Evolution  
MSI Measurements, Standards, and Intercomparisons NCAR/ACD Group
MSI Maximum Strategy, Inc
MSIS mass spectrometer and incoherent scatter
MSISR Millstone Hill incoherent scatter radar
MSL mean sea level
MSLP Mean sea-level pressure
MSOCC Multisatellite Operations Control Center
MSP Minneapolis, Minnesota
M-SRI Stanford Resource Institute
MSS Multi-spectral Scanner LANDSAT
MSS mass storage system NCAR
MST mesospheric/stratospheric/tropospheric
MSU microwave sounding unit
MSU mass storage unit
MT Magnetic Tape
MTA message transfer agent
MTBF mean time between failure
MTC Main Trunk Circuit GARP
MTEM Magnetosphere-Thermosphere Explorer Mission USA
MTF Mississippi Test Facility NASA
MTI moving target indicator
MTL message transfer layer
MTM Mechanical Test Model
MTTF Mean Time to Failure
MTTR mean time to repair
M-UCSD University of California at San Diego
MUG McIDAS Users Group
multicast   A packet with a special destination address that multiple nodes on the network may be willing to receive.
multimedia   Means of conveying information via a combination of mechanisms, including but not limited to text, images, video, and sound.
multitasking   The capability of running two or more programs simultaneously; describes operating systems.
MUSE monitor of ultraviolet solar energy
M&V Magmatism & Volcanoes
MVS Multiple Virtual Storage A mainframe operating system that is not supported by Unidata, but whose initials may be confused with the VMS
MVS/XA Multiple Virtual Systems/Extended Architecture Operating system on the Mass Storage Control Processor, NCAR
MW Microwave
Mw Megawords
MWG Meteorological Working Group IRIG, USAF
MWISP Mt. Washington Winter Icing and Storms Project UCAR, NCAR, RAP
MWO Mt. Washington Observatory
Mwords megawords million words
MWP MicroWave Profiler
Mx maxwell